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Ophthalmotrope: Movements of the Eye

This dynamic eye model is designed to demonstrate, with ease, the movements of the eye, including the more difficult concepts of intrusion and extorsion. It was initially designed by Mr Robed Whitaker MA. MD. Menhir. FRCS, a retired surgeon and now assistant clinical anatomist in Cambridge, and was subsequently developed by Pharmabotics.


This new and modern model of the eye is based on the original ophthalmoscopes that were devised in the nineteenth century. Static models are now widely used in teaching students and graduates the principles of eye movements. They are good for many aspects of the eye but fail to demonstrate eye movements. An eye that responds to the pull of muscles and simulates the actual movements gives a new perspective and understanding.

Ease of Use

Each extrinsic eye muscle has a labelled cord that can be pulled and the muscle responds easily and accurately. The model has suction feet that allow it to stay still while the muscles are activated. The angle of the eye in relation to the orbit is faithfully reproduced so that the superior and inferior recti and to: two obliques are activated accurately. This means that the use of two muscles for plain upward and downward gaze are easily demonstrated. The model is robust and designed to withstand the handling that can be expected from large numbers of students.

User Groups

Undergraduates studying anatomy, all those interested in the eye and more specifically, students of ophthalmology will all find this model invaluable.